‘Аbsorbing the Potential of Wood Waste in EU
Regions and Industrial Bio-based Ecosystems
BioReg’
D2.3: LESSONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
DOCUMENT TO REGIONAL AUTHORITIES AND
POLICY MAKERS
To the attention of the Research Executive Agency
Organization
ARBN
Due date
30.09.2017
This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and innovation
programme under grant agreement no 727958
Document information
: Lessons and recommendations document for regional
8.06.2018
Nature of the deliverable
Dissemination Level
Document Approval
Document Review
Date
Version
Reviewers
29.06.2018
2
Dominique Boulday
29.06.2018
2
Teodora Marinova
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This report is part of the deliverables in the project "BioReg" which has received funding from the European
Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement n° 727958. The Community is
not responsible for any use that might be made of the content of this publication.
BioReg project proposes to create a platform of stakeholders who are able to influence and develop their regions
towards bio-based industries and products.
The project runs from January 2017 to December 2019, it involves 8 partners and is coordinated by “le C BINET
D'ETUDES SUR LES DECHETS ET L'ENERGIE” (CEDEN).
More information on the project can be found at http://bioreg.eu/project/.
ABSTRACT
Based on the conclusions of WP1 and tasks 2.1 and 2.2 in WP2, the current document aims at increasing
knowledge on how wood waste policies and wood waste valorisation could be improved.
Findings and evidence in WP1 and tasks 2.1 and 2.2 in WP2 will inform BioReg’s policy recommendations at
regional, national and EU level.
Recommendations proposed in the document are intended to regional authorities and policy makers in the model
regions of Normandie (France), Alentejo (Portugal) and Lubelskie (Poland), through the BioReg Platform.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This document provides lessons and recommendations to regional authorities and policy makers in recipient
regions based on the success factors identified in model regions. Even if the document targets Normandy,
Lisboa/Alentejo and Lubelskie, the lessons and recommendations highlighted can be transferred to any European
region. Five main lessons and recommendations have been identified:
-
Structuring the offer of wood waste products: classification
-
Increase of the exploitable deposit by enhancing collection and reducing landfill
-
Develop sorting of different classes of wood waste
-
Promote the development of material recovery in panels
-
Develop and optimize the energy recovery of waste
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
CONTENTS
1
Abbreviations
5
2
Introduction
5
3
Structuring the offer of wood waste products: classification
6
3.1 Normandy
6
3.2 Lubelskie
7
3.3 Alentejo, Lisboa
8
4
Increase of the exploitable deposit by enhancing collection and reducing landfill
9
4.1 Normandy
9
4.2 Lubelskie
11
4.3 Alentejo, Lisboa
11
5
Develop sorting of different classes of wood waste
12
6
Promote the development of material recovery in panels
13
7
Develop and optimize the energy recovery of waste
15
7.1 Normandy
15
7.2 Lubelskie
17
7.3 Alentejo, Lisboa
17
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
1
ABBREVIATIONS
All abbreviations shall have the meaning defined either herein or in the Rules for Participation or in the Grant
Agreement (GA) including its Annexes without the need to replicate said terms herein.
2
INTRODUCTION
The BioReg project aims to identify good practices that could be implemented in the recipient Regions. Within the
project we have identify five model regions, which were analysed and presented in the workshop. The best
practices from model regions were identified and presented to the stakeholders from recipient regions.
Map 1. : Regions of BioReg project
The current document aims to submit recommendations to regional authorities and policy makers from
beneficiary Regions.
Findings and evidence highlighted in WP1 and tasks 2.1 and 2.2 of WP2, as well as discussions within the Strategic
Chain Committee (a task force formed on the ministries’ initiative as part of industrial branch development in
France) led to the identification of lessons for policy makers and regional authorities in model regions. These
lessons are detailed according to the following five themes:
- Structuring the offer of wood waste products: classification
- Increasing the exploitable deposit by enhancing collection and reducing landfill
- Developing sorting of different classes of wood waste
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
- Promoting the development of material recovery in panels
- Developing and optimizing the energy recovery of waste
Industrial eco-systems identified and described in deliverable 1.3 are options for sustainable valorisation in
recipient regions, where context is less suitable and favourable. These different eco-systems are not directly
applicable in the recipient regions. Indeed, if the regulatory framework (policies, incentives, etc.) is more easily
transferable, other aspects have to be taken into account for the objective of reproducing conditions of success in
recipient regions, and in particular geographical and industrial context, which strongly influence the strategies.
3
STRUCTURING THE OFFER OF WOOD WASTE PRODUCTS: CLASSIFICATION
3.1
NORMANDY
The usual French classification into three classes A, B and C, without a precise definition of characteristics, is
inadequate because it does not correspond to the regulations on combustion plants and the European Panel
Federation (EPF) standards.
Considering the examples of existing classifications (ISO standards, German, Finnish and British regulations), the
specifications and structuring needs in relation to recycling and energy recovery systems, a proposal was drawn
up.
The principles of this classification are to distinguish 4 classes of recovered wood:
- two extreme classes: one for waste consisting of pure biomass (Class 1) and the other for wood waste
classified as hazardous waste (Class 4)
- two intermediate classes:
o Class 2: recovered wood complying with specifications of chemical composition enabling it to be
used for panel recycling and energy recovery in combustion plants, under the Installations
Classified regarding Environmental Protection (ICPE) 2910 B regime.
o Class 3: Non-hazardous wood waste that can be used in energy recovery installations under the
ICEP 2771 or 2971 scheme.
The table below details this proposal for the classification of products from wood waste B:
Classes
(and matching
with UK &
Chemical composition criteria
Main uses and recovery modes
Targeted origins
German
classification)
Material recovery (panels)
Packaging wood
1
Recovered wood
Combustion installations ICPE
Solid wood processing waste
(A-AI)
Virgin biomass
2910 A Regime
without adjuvants
Recovered wood without
Material recovery (panels)
Waste from furniture
2
organohalogenated and heavy
Combustion installations ICPE
components (DEA)
(B-AII)
metals, respecting specifications
2910 B Regime
Construction waste
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regarding concentration
Second wood processing
thresholds, by waste origin
companies' waste
without prior mixing
Demolition and renovation
waste
Mixed wood waste
Energy recovery in incineration
3
Construction waste and
Non-hazardous wood waste
and co-incineration installations
(C-AIII)
second wood processing
(ICPE 2771 & 2971 regimes)
companies' waste not
respecting the Class 2
specifications
Energy recovery in hazardous
Impregnated wood waste
4
Impregnated wood waste
waste incinerators (ICPE 2770
from construction and
(D-AIV)
classified as hazardous waste
regime)
outdoor installations
The possible uses of the different classes can therefore be summarised as follows:
Product
ICPE Regime for energy recovery
Material
classes
2910A
2910B
2971
2771
2770
recovery
1
2
3
4
As these classification principles have been laid down, the chemical composition specifications separating Class 2
from Class 3 have yet to be defined: list of targeted substances and thresholds among other things.
Furthermore, harmonisation of specifications for material recovery in panel board (currently EPF specifications)
and for energy recovery in combustion plants 2910 B needs to be considered: these specifications are linked to the
proposal presented below on the evolution of regulatory constraints on incoming products for combustion plants
(ICPE 2910B).
In addition, to facilitate the development of sorting on wood waste management platforms, an upstream
classification of the sorting centre according to origin could be useful.
3.2
LUBELSKIE
At that moment, there is no wood waste classification or document dedicated only in wood waste management in
Poland. In many scientific publications, lack of proper wood waste classification is indicated as a one of the biggest
problem in this area. One document, which in some way refers to wood waste management, is directive
2000/532/CE about waste classification. It divides waste into 20 main groups depending on the source of their
formation. However, the wood waste in the catalogue has not been sufficiently distinguished due to their
usefulness in recycling. Wood waste is mostly in group: 03. Waste from wood processing and the production of
panels and furniture, pulp, paper and cardboard.
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In literature, Germany is considered as a model country in terms of legal regulations in the context of wood waste
management. Document Altholzverordnung divides wood waste in four groups:
Group I - waste of "clean" natural wood, without any synthetic additives;
Group II - wood products other than natural, not containing however, PVC and wood impregnating
agents;
Group III - wood waste other than natural, containing in its PVC composition, but not containing
impregnates;
Group IV - wood waste containing impregnation for wood.
Introduction of such a division would have a positive effect on wood waste management. Many authors note that
the lack of such regulations is one of the basic obstacles to the development of this sector.
3.3
ALENTEJO, LISBOA
In Portugal, the only classification that currently exists to qualify wood wastes is the separation between non-
hazardous and hazardous wood waste (wood waste that needs treatment or that goes to specific landfill dedicated
to hazardous waste). This classification, without a precise definition of characteristics, either for the non-hazardous
and hazardous wood waste, makes it difficult, to give value to wood waste. For example, in the category of non-
hazardous wastes, the “pure” wood wastes, when collected, are usually mixed with wood wastes that are not
“pure”, hindering its reuse by the panel industry.
Considering the examples of existing classifications (ISO standards, German, Finnish and British regulations), the
specifications and structuring needs in relation to recycling and energy recovery systems, and after hearing
stakeholders and players, it is recommended for Portugal, and for Lisbon and Alentejo regions, that wood waste
could be classified into four groups:
Group I - waste of "clean" natural wood, without any synthetic additives;
Group II - wood products other than natural, not containing however, organohalogens and heavy metals
and wood impregnating agents;
Group III - wood waste other than natural, containing in its composition organohalogens and heavy
metals, but not containing impregnates;
Group IV - Impregnated wood waste
Introduction of such a classification would have a positive effect on wood waste management. Moreover, an
indication of the targeted origins that match each group will simplify the process of classification and may enhance
the amount of wood waste collected. In addition, following the circular economy principles, the reuse of the wood
waste should, preferably, be oriented to the panel industry. Reuse as biomaterial, instead of reusing directly for
bio-energy, contributes to fixe carbon for a long period, which is a positive aspect.
The following table details the proposal for the classification of wood waste. Landfilling the wood waste should not
be an option, and national policies should legislate in conformity. Following the application of the classification
proposal and limiting or eliminating the landfill option will, surely, contribute to improve the wood waste recycling
numbers in Portugal and Europe.
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Classes
(matching
Main uses and recovery
Composition criteria
Targeted origins
German/British
modes
classification)
Packaging wood; Solid wood
I
Recovered virgin wood waste
processing waste without
Material recovery (panels)
adjuvants
Waste from furniture
Recovered wood without
components; Construction and
Material recovery (panels)
II
organohalogens and with low
demolition waste; Second wood
Combustion installations
levels of heavy metals
processing companies' waste
Construction and demolition
Recovered wood with
waste; Mixed wood waste;
Energy recovery in
organohalogens and heavy
Second wood processing
III
incineration and co-
metals, but not considered as
companies' waste. All wood
incineration installations
hazardous waste
waste that do not respect the
Class II specifications
Impregnated wood waste :
Energy recovery in
creosote wood (railway sleepers),
Impregnated wood waste
IV
autoclaved wood CCA (outside
hazardous waste
classified as hazardous waste
wood like cladding, garden huts,
incinerators
wooden terraces)
The classification of wood waste in categories I-IV can be clarified if chemical composition specifications, for each
end use, are defined. Policy makers should be attentive to this subject. In addition, to facilitate the development of
sorting on wood waste management platforms, an upstream classification of the sorting centre according to origin
could be useful.
4
INCREASE OF THE EXPLOITABLE DEPOSIT BY ENHANCING COLLECTION AND REDUCING
LANDFILL
4.1
NORMANDY
4.1.1 IMPROVE WOOD WASTE COLLECTION
Regarding household waste and waste from furniture components (called DEA in France), the ECOMOBILIER and
VALDELIA eco-organisations' programmes (Extended Producer’s Responsibility), which have started to be deployed
since the beginning of their action and will continue to rise in power, must produce significant results. It should be
noted that, in the light of the results of a survey carried out within the framework of the ECIRBEN project, the
development of specific DEA skips in waste collection centres does not mean that the wooden skips that were in
place will disappear (in particular for others waste wood generated by handiwork: renovation, etc.)
In the case of construction waste, the development of separate containers on site for the collection of wood waste
is an obvious measure, already widely practised on sites of a certain scale; obstacles to its generalisation are either
the available space on site in the case of construction works in dense urban areas, or the size of the site, where
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
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wood waste may represent a small volume. In this context, the implementation of multi-compartment containers
for small construction sites could be a suitable option. Besides, it is necessary to densify the network of specific
collecting centres for building companies.
Waste from secondary wood-processing companies: there is an expressed need for the development of collection
centres with a fine-meshed network and the possibility for small businesses and craftsmen to access community’s
waste collection centres (in some territories). The draft decree on the takeover of construction waste by
distributors could partly meet this need; however, the limits of this instrument would have to be examined further
so as to know which companies are concerned and whether the network of these companies in the territory is
sufficient.
Moreover, the information available at FCBA
(the Forest, Cellulose, Wood construction and Furnituring
technological Institute) indicates that a significant proportion of the production waste of these companies is made
up of solid wood and glued solid wood elements; these elements represent a quality raw material for panel
manufacturers, which is not captured today because of the strong geographical dispersion; it is therefore
interesting to study the possibility of optimised logistic systems allowing the collection of this deposit.
4.1.2 LOWER LANDFILLING
The first proposal concerning all deposits is the regulatory ban on landfilling of identified wood waste: the decree
"5 flows" answers in part. This decree is applicable to companies (producers and holders of waste) that do not use
the services of local authorities to manage their waste as well as to companies that use the services of local and
regional authorities and produce or hold more than 1,100 litres of waste per week.
This decree concerns waste recovered by companies in the course of their activities, whether it is waste thrown by
their customers in their facilities or by their employees.
These companies will have to separate waste paper, metal, plastic, glass and wood from the rest of their waste for
reuse or recovery.
A second proposal, specific to building waste, presented by the French Building Federation organisations (National
union of demolition companies and union of building and public works recyclers), would be the exemption from
the landfilling tax on recycled rejects from sorting centres that recover more than 70% of their flows.
At last, study of model regions as part of the first tasks carried out under Bioreg showed that landfilling ban for
some specific waste than can be recycled or recovered, or a high landfilling tax entails an increasing of waste
valorisation (recycling or recovery). In France, landfilling is cheap (50-80
€/t including a waste tax of around 15-25
€/t) and accordingly incentive.
It is then recommended:
- Either to ban landfilling to waste likely to be recycled or recovered,
- Or increase the waste tax.
These proposed actions can only be taken at the national scale, and not specifically in Normandy.
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4.2
LUBELSKIE
In the Lubelskie voivodeship, there are no legal regulations that would prohibit the storage wood waste on
landfills, so from a legal point of view it is possible. However, information obtained from discussions with local
waste management companies shows that technically, there is no wood waste that would end up in a landfill. In
the RIPO (Regional Installation of Municipal Waste Treatment) wood waste is sorted (mostly bulky waste), then
used as material for the production of RDF.
The burning of wood waste in home heating installations or fireplaces is still a big problem. Wastes that often
contain hazardous substances (waste from group III and IV) are burned, which should be disposed of in appropriate
conditions.
Actions to increase public awareness of the effects of burning wood waste at home were beneficial. It should be
made clear to people what substances are released into the atmosphere when burning waste at home, and what
effects it brings. A social campaign targeted at residents, in particular regions where free-standing buildings
dominate, could contribute to the desired effects.
Action to ensure that all wood waste is duly sorted should be taken. This process is crucial in the further stages of
using this waste. Thanks to it, their rational use will be possible.
4.3
ALENTEJO, LISBOA
In Portugal, wastes are classified with codes and for wood waste there are several codes, following the indications
from European legislation. According to national rules, there are commitments to recycle wood packaging and to
make use of wood waste. The recovery of the wood wastes is high. On average in Portugal, 89% is being recovered.
Concerning non-contaminated wood waste, traditionally, those are reused for pellets and energy or incorporated
in new materials (such as panel board). Concerning contaminated wood waste: it is mandatory that those wastes
are channelled to CDR (waste-derived fuels) production units where industrial pellets are produced. These
industrial pellets are delivered to cement factories that have the license, and are certified, to use them in their
furnaces. The aim is not to deliver those wastes to landfill. So, all the efforts concerning the sorting of wood waste
are for its reuse and recycling. However, it is proposed that policies can be improved in order to ban the delivery of
wood waste to landfill or to increase the taxes associated with the waste delivered to landfill.
The collected wood waste in Alentejo and Lisbon regions is mostly coming from commercial and industrial sources
(ca. 55%), and municipal collection (16%). The amount collected from construction and demolition waste is very
low (only 4%). But, there are ca. 25% of wood waste from other sources not specified.
There are options for improvement regarding collection of wood waste, especially because there is no knowledge
on how the wood waste is being reused to more than half of the wood waste recovered (156 thousand tons, 57%
of the total wood waste).
Concerning municipal wood waste, in 2013, only 14% of the total produced in Portugal was selectively collected,
and 86% went to the mixed municipal waste. Although there are no numbers to confirm this, it is known that in
the mixed wastes there are still wood wastes that can be selectively collected. So, a recommendation to the
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regional authorities and policy makers is to raise campaigns oriented to improve the selective collection of
household wood waste (furniture, etc.). Moreover, campaigns and programs could be raised to use links between
furniture retailers and consumers. For example, by delivering new furniture to consumers, a reduction in the price
could be achieved if the old furniture was collected by the furniture retailer. This reduction in price could be
covered by the sorting facilities where the furniture retailers would deliver the wood wastes. All stakeholders
agree that, for the dimension of the country, the existing network of collection centres for wood waste is
appropriate to respond to demands. This collecting could be carried out through the implementation of a tax
under the producer’s responsibility system, promoted by European directive on waste of 2008.
Concerning wastes (non-hazardous) from wood transformation: sawmill, panel industry, carpentries, joineries, etc.
these wastes are collected and reused for the production of pellets, briquettes as well as wood panels, or directly
recovered in energy on site for heat needs of the process. This sector is well organized in order to reuse as much as
possible and add value to the waste. Although this sector already exploits wood wastes in large percentage, there
are always options for improvement.
Regarding construction and demolition wastes, wood wastes collected are most of the times mixed with other
wastes, making it difficult to add value to those wastes. However, in the last years, efforts are being made by this
sector, to selectively collect the wastes produced. Stakeholders are already aware of the need to do it, and
understand the reasons behind. Initially, stakeholders focused on processes that contributed to hazardousness
prevention and minimization of the use of landfills. Sorting at source, recycling and other forms of recovery is
being gradually implemented. Incentives linked with the material selectively collected could improve the numbers
linked with those wastes. For example, by reducing some taxes according to the amount of selectively collected
wood wastes. Nevertheless, the logistics of those actions still need improvements and studies towards
optimization, e.g. specific collecting centres for building companies network.
5
DEVELOP SORTING OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF WOOD WASTE
In this area, the general proposal is to promote the technical and organisational development of sorting centres to
enable the various grades of wood waste to be placed on the market for panels, combustion, incineration or co-
incineration. To achieve this objective, leads are presented below.
The developments to be implemented concern:
- Possible links between upstream classes (origin of waste) and downstream uses: mixing of waste with
different levels of contaminant concentration should be avoided;
- Sorting and preparation techniques for reducing contaminant levels;
- Techniques and practices for detecting, separating, characterising and tracing the different types of
waste.
Firstly, concerning building waste, it seems appropriate to:
- Separate new construction waste (rather clean wood waste) and demolition-renovation waste as soon as
it is received.
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- Promote the development of platform sorting, aimed at separating batches whose characterization
results show significantly different contaminant levels:
o Unpainted and untreated wood on the one hand,
o Doors and windows, exterior wood and composites on the other hand.
With regard to the detection, separation, preparation, characterisation and traceability of the different types of
waste, possible solutions have been addressed in various studies (ECIRBEN, DEMOWOOD, CAREWOOD); the
research and development priorities concern the following subjects:
- Technologies for the sorting of fibreboard and other undesirable for panel recycling,
- Combined visual sorting and screening systems to reach the chemical composition levels of the contract
specifications,
- Characterization methods at acceptable cost.
Finally, an effective measure would be to encourage the establishment of sorting centres, in close collaboration
with user sites, to facilitate the development of a market. By encouraging the establishment of waste sorting
platforms within particleboard production sites, for example, which often also have an energy recovery facility; it is
possible to create efficient synergies for the management and recovery of this waste, by simply guaranteeing that
the products resulting from the sorting process can be used.
The same type of synergy can be envisioned between a sorting platform and an energy recovery facility depending
on the specificities of each territory.
Multi-level authorities can play a major role in supporting projects. Mechanisms can be devised to support R&D
projects aimed at improving the collection, sorting and preparation of waste as well as for financing the most
mature operational project by using:
- European FEDER Funds
- Regional subsidies
The French Environmental Agency
(ADEME) in Normandy, the Ministry of the Environmental and Chief
Inspectorate of Environmental in Lubelskie and the Portuguese Environmental Agency (APA), in Alentejo and
Lisbon regions, can also be an important partner in technical assistance.
6
PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL RECOVERY IN PANELS
With regard to the social acceptability of customers and consumers, it turned out that there is no major problem
identified if the quality of the recovered material is guaranteed. It was even suggested that the recycling rate could
even become a "plus product". For example, IKEA requires its suppliers 35 % of recycled wood in the panels, for
the manufacture of its furniture.
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Regarding technical constraints, practices in other European countries (production in Italy of panels with a very
high-recycled content) and R&D (DEMOWOOD) show that the objective of increasing the recycled content by up to
50% while guaranteeing the quality of products is possible.
For this development of the use of recycled in panels, the imperative condition is to obtain the quantities of waste
wood with the required quality characteristics
(chemical composition, undesirable elements, and physical
characteristics). In addition, economic constraints are the following:
o Investments in sorting/preparation plants at panel manufacturers
o The expected additional costs of improving sorting to meet quality specifications:
o Support will be needed for investments in panel manufacturing sites.
Multi-level authorities can play a major role in supporting projects. Mechanisms can be devised to support R&D
projects aimed at improving techniques for incorporating wood waste into existing processes as well as for
financing the most mature operational project by using:
- European FEDER Funds
- Regional subsidies
In Normandy, the French Environmental Agency (ADEME) can also be an important partner in technical assistance.
Regarding additional sorting costs, an incentive scheme could help to take them into account. The CSF (Strategic
Chain Committee) agreed on the interest of working on the mechanism of an eco-modulation of eco-participation
on furniture, according to the rate of recycled in the panels used. Quite complex issues arise at this stage, such as
the measurement and control of this rate (evidence mode) and the determination of the point of origin. In
Normandy, LINEX is a panel producer which uses only virgin wood. Incentives like ones described above could
motivate this company in using recycled wood.
In Alentejo, and Lisbon regions, as also in other regions of Portugal, the wood transformation sector (sawmill,
panel industry, carpentries, joineries) already have an existing well organized network that reuse as much as
possible and add value to the wood waste. Yet, those wood wastes are used not only in the production of wood
panels but also on the production of pellets and briquettes. As virgin biomass is sometimes used for the production
of pellets and briquettes, an effort should be made to prevent this and to send this waste to the production of
panels. This will prolong the time length of the carbon sink then if reused for energy, with benefits towards carbon
credits.
As reuse of wood waste as material represents only 28% of the total wood waste being produced in Portugal (77
thousand tons), increasing this number is a target that can be reached if local authorities and policy makers
together with stakeholders converge towards achieving this objective. So, to transfer all the virgin wood waste
(e.g. from packaging or solid wood processing waste without adjuvants) to the production of panels or other
biomaterials should be ranked first in giving waste wood a value.
Moreover, all the non-hazardous wood waste that is non-virgin, should be also transferred to the production of
panels in order to increase the amount of recycled material incorporated. However, to do this, the recycled wood
used should be characterized and controlled in a manner that the final product incorporated with the recycled
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innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
wood complies with the required quality characteristics (chemical composition, undesirable elements, and physical
characteristics). Incentive schemes applied can help to overcome the economic constraints associated with
investments needed to characterize the materials or to improve sorting to meet quality specifications. For
example, by reducing taxes according to the amount of recycled material incorporated.
7
DEVELOP AND OPTIMIZE THE ENERGY RECOVERY OF WASTE
7.1
NORMANDY
7.1.1 LARGE-SCALE INSTALLATIONS (>20 MW)
The inventory shows that there are now four main installations of high power and a few small ones in the whole
country (only one in Normandy), allowing the recovery of wood waste (non-hazardous) under an adapted ICPE
regime (2771). It represents an insufficient capacity compared to the flows produced by the sorting centres,
especially since the increase in the collection and sorting capacity of DEAs (waste wood from furniture).
The proposal is therefore to encourage the development of this type of installations, as close as possible to major
urban sources (Waste from construction industry and from furniture components), under the appropriate ICPE
regime to consume recovered wood of class 3, but also class 2, or even class 1 and biomass. The equilibrium
between these classes will be regulated by the price of fuel, which will encourage maximum consumption of waste
wood.
In comparison with a conventional biomass combustion plant, under the ICPE 2910A regime, the investment in a
plant of this power level, under the type of incineration or heat production from recovered fuel (ICPE 2771 or
2971) represents an additional cost of about 20 to 30%. Given the required flue gas cleaning systems and ash
management technologies, there are also additional operating costs.
In order to take into account of these different additional costs, the proposal consists in encouraging the
development of this kind of installations through call for tenders launched by the Energy Regulation Commission
(CRE) dedicated to CHP Plants allowing the recovery of wood waste (under adapted ICPE regime). The purchase of
the electricity and heat (industrial needs, district heating network) produced would thus make it possible to cover
the additional operating costs.
To maintain flexibility, the supply plan could be composed of different classes of recovered wood or even biomass,
but the facility with the capacity to consume Class 3 recovered wood would be encouraged by prices to maximize
the use of this resource.
Stakeholders highlight the difficulty of social acceptance of this type of installation, which will have to be
anticipated by working on the communication in relation to this type of project, to be presented as a biomass
energy production plant rather than a waste incineration plant. Regarding these aspects, community, regional and
national authorities must be involved in supporting project promoters in order to ensure better acceptability of
such facilities.
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
Another significant obstacle to consider for this type of project is the cost of ash management, for which
economically viable management solutions will have to be developed.
However, the development of such high-powered plants will have two major advantages: the flexibility of supply
and lower additional investment costs due to scale effects.
7.1.2 SMALLER COMBUSTION PLANTS FOLLOWING ICPE 2910 B REGIME, TO CONSUME
RECOVERED WOOD OF CLASS 2 AND CLASS 1
There are currently no 2910 B installations outside the industrial sector, i.e. excluding self-consumption. The
reasons for this are as follows:
- Highly selective chemical composition criteria for incoming products, based on low natural biomass
reference values
- Laboratory fuel control costs
The proposals to allow the development of this type of installation are therefore as follows:
- To revise the fuel constraints of the regulatory framework 2910 B: the aim is to change certain thresholds
on the composition of incoming products, without modifying the thresholds for air emissions, based on a
shared analysis protocol. The objective would be that these modified thresholds, which would become
the thresholds of the specifications for Class 2, could be reached by sorting measures. These changes
would be justified by demonstrating the capacity of the installations to comply with the existing
thresholds on emissions. For this purpose, data from characterization and combustion studies will be
submitted to the services of the Ministry;
- To develop the offer of wood class 2, with this demanding specification: this can be done in sorting
centres by implementing measures of selection of origin, visual sorting, and screening;
- To lighten controls on incoming products in order to reach an economic feasibility of projects, while
guaranteeing its composition: this last aspect will have to be subject to control procedures at sorting
centres.
The constraints of this development, in economic terms, will be the additional costs of fuel sorting compared to
incineration type installations.
The issue of the management of ashes produced by these plants will also have to be addressed in order to obtain
economically viable management methods, possibly recovery, while guaranteeing a high level of health and
environmental protection over time.
The development of a set of such plants (revised regime ICPE 2910B), in addition to high-power incineration plants,
would have several advantages:
- A possible grid of the territory with installations of lower power and being able to establish themselves in
less urban areas than high power installations;
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
- Lower investment and operating costs than incinerators;
- Better acceptability by neighbourhood.
These developments could be promoted either by Fonds Chaleur provided by ADEME for District Heating Network
and for heat needs of industrials (with eventual co-funding from regional authorities and European FEDER Funds)
or CRE’s call for tenders (CHP Plants only).
7.2
LUBELSKIE
There is no big biomass energy plant in Lubelskie region. There are only 2 energy plants, which are using biomass
as a fuel. One is located in Biułgoraj, uses biomass from waste in furniture production. The second is Hrubieszów
district and uses biomass in co-burning with coal.
Near the border of the Lublin province there are several power plants that use biomass as a material in the co-
incineration process, or as a main fuel. In Polaniec was created, the largest energy block (with a capacity of 225
MW) in Europe, powered only by biomass. Biomass from forest waste and wood industry is used there. The
demand for this resource is very large, over 1 million ton.
Hazardous wood waste are a big problem. They have to be utilized in special condition. In region almost all
hazardous waste are used as a fuel in cement plant. There is two of them in region. Fuel from hazardous wood
waste it is highly caloric, and willingly use by cement companies,
Potential of energy recovery of wood waste in region is quite high; almost all is already used.
It would be necessary to pay special attention to the earlier mentioned burning of wood waste at home. These
installations are not prepared to use this kind of fuel.
Another option is to produce pellet from wood waste. In region, there is several pellet company. Pellet fuel is more
environmental friendly than traditional fuels, when burning less tar substances get into atmosphere. Therefore,
promoting this type of fuel is justified.
7.3
ALENTEJO, LISBOA
Statistics of Portugal indicate that 10 thousand tons of wood wastes are being recovered for energy (3.5% of the
total wood waste). Yet, part of the collected wood waste with unknown use (25% of the total wood waste, which is
a significant number) is in fact being used for energy (especially in households, in home heating systems), with
possible harmful emissions in the atmosphere.
In order to valorize the wood waste to energy, there are currently in Lisbon region 4 pellet and briquettes
companies. In Alentejo, there are 3 pellet companies. Those companies can produce material to be used in home
heating systems (in this case, waste wood is prohibited). In the North of Portugal (Mortágua), located 200 km to
Lisbon and Alentejo region, there is a biomass power plant (10 MW) that receives mostly forest residues, but it can
accommodate waste wood from category II. In Lisbon and Alentejo region there are other biomass power plants
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958
(0.1 MW) but those power plants are linked to companies functioning with biomass wastes from those companies
(e.g., in Alentejo, with olive oil wastes). In Alentejo region, the Industrial Complex of Setúbal has a Biomass power
plant of 12.5 MW that uses forest residues and wastes from pulp for paper production, and this power plant can
accommodate also wood waste residues, category II. In Central region of Portugal, in the boundaries of Alentejo
region, there are also two biomass power plants that can also accommodate wood waste, category II. One of the
biomass power plant (6 MW), uses forest residues, pine bar, sawdust, waste olive cake. The other biomass power
plant (13.7 MW), uses forest residues, and wastes from pulp paper factory. On June 2017, the current government
publish a diploma to promote the installation and operation by municipalities or intermunicipal communities of
new biomass power plants that use organic matter such as forest residues, to produce energy and to promote
forest cleaning. The diploma also provides support and incentive measures to ensure their implementation, with
the main objective being the protection of forests, forest management and preservation and the fight against fire.
The location of the new biomass power plants will have to take into account the municipalities with close
proximity to critical fire zones or with forest stands and also the proximity to other biomass power plants or
forestry/biomass industries. Theses installations should also focus on industrial zones or parks that allow or
complement the use of thermal energy. The new legislation establishes that the injection power can not exceed 60
MW in the continental territory and 15 MW per plant. Therefore, there is potential to reuse wood waste into
energy.
In order to optimize the energy recover from wood wastes, especially from wood wastes from category III and IV
(hazardous wastes), incineration and co-incineration are optional pathways in line with the current state of art in
Europe. In the region of Lisbon, two incinerators are active to receive and incinerate non- hazardous and
hazardous wastes. In Lisbon, the current Incinerator of Urban Solid Wastes (50 MW), can accommodate wood
wastes (category III). Two cement plants, one in Lisbon region (Cimpor - Alhandra) and another one in the vicinity
of Lisbon, but already in Alentejo region (Secil - Outão) can incinerate (co-incinerate) wood hazardous wastes. In
Alentejo, there are two Hazardous Wastes Treatment Units (SISAV and Ecodeal). The Ecodeal Unit uses wood
pellets as a source of energy for the treatment of organic residues, an example of circular economy. Those wood
pellets, if incorporated with recycled wood waste, represent an example on how recycling of wood waste can be
promoted.
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and
innovation programme under grant agreement no 727958